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Measurement Devices

Length/Area/Volume Measurement Devices

Measurement Device Units
Area planimeter m2
Diameter caliper (internal or external)
micrometer
mm, m
µm
Distance away laser rangefinder, lidar, radar km
Distance travelled, on foot pedometer (actually counts steps) m
Distance travelled, car odometer km
Height altimeter (atmospheric pressure or radar)
GPS
m
Length, light waves interferometer nm
Length caliper mm
Length ruler mm, cm
Length tape measure mm, cm, m
Length, arbitrary curves (eg, contours or roads on a map) opisometer
surveyor's wheel
mm
m
Location/position GPS °N/S, °E/W
Gap, clearance caliper (internal)
feeler gauge
mm
Volume graduated cylinder
measuring cup
pipette
mL, L

Other Measurement Devices

Measures Device Units
Acceleration (including vibration),
gravity
accelerometer
gravimeter
m/s2
Angle protractor °
Angle, direction (magnetic) compass, theodolite °
Angle, elevation astrolabe, inclinometer (or clinometer), sextant, theodolite, three axis accelerometer with trigonometry (as used in cellphones)
laser line level, spirit level (for level, a lack of elevation angle)
°
Angle, wind direction weather vane °
Climb speed (rate of climb) variometer m/s
Current galvanometer
ammeter
µA
µA, mA, A
Electricity, quantity voltameter (not voltmeter) C (= A·s or F·V)
Gas and liquid flow flow meter (lots of different sorts for gas and liquid)
gas meter (several sorts)
L/s, m3/s (cumecs), etc
Light, radiant energy power radiometer (a simplified version is Crookes_radiometer) W
Light, radiant energy intensity pyranometer W/m2
Mass and weight balance,
spring scale
weighing scale
g, kg, N
Milk, richness lactometer ° (out of 100)
Optical density (darkness) densitometer  
Pressure, atmospheric barometer (How to Use a Barometer...)
barograph
Pa (= N/m2)
Resistance ohmmeter Ω
Rotation speed tachometer rpm
Sound sound level meter dB (or dBA)
Speed doppler radar (radar gun)
speedometer
tachymeter (not tachometer)
km/h
Temperature thermometer °C, K
Thermal conductivity, gas katharometer W/(m·K)
Time calendar
sundial
hourglass, egg timer
clock
marine chronometer (See John Harrison, 1737, subject of the excellent book Longitude.)
atomic clock
s
Volts (electrical potential) voltmeter mV, V

Devices which can measure a variety of things include multimeters and oscilloscopes.

There are lots more measuring devices.

Without looking, can you guess what a heliometer measures? Remember your chemistry lessons?