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Measurement Devices

Length/Area/Volume Measurement Devices

Measurement Device Units
Area planimeter m2
Diameter caliper (internal or external)
micrometer
mm, m
µm
Distance away laser rangefinder, lidar, radar km
Distance travelled, on foot pedometer (actually counts steps) m
Distance travelled, car odometer km
Height altimeter (atmospheric pressure or radar)
GPS
m
Length, light waves interferometer nm
Length caliper mm
Length ruler mm, cm
Length tape measure mm, cm, m
Length, arbitrary curves (eg, contours or roads on a map) opisometer
surveyor's wheel
mm
m
Location/position GPS °N/S, °E/W
Gap, clearance caliper (internal)
feeler gauge
mm
Volume graduated cylinder
measuring cup
pipette
mL, L

Other Measurement Devices

Measures Device Units
Acceleration (including vibration),
gravity
accelerometer
gravimeter
m/s2
Angle protractor °
Angle, direction (magnetic) compass, theodolite °
Angle, elevation astrolabe, inclinometer (or clinometer), sextant, theodolite, three axis accelerometer with trigonometry (as used in cellphones)
laser line level, spirit level (for level, a lack of elevation angle)
°
Angle, wind direction weather vane °
Climb speed (rate of climb) variometer m/s
Current galvanometer
ammeter
µA
µA, mA, A
Electricity, quantity voltameter (not voltmeter) C (= A·s or F·V)
Gas and liquid flow flow meter (lots of different sorts for gas and liquid)
gas meter (several sorts)
L/s, m3/s (cumecs), etc
Light, radiant energy power radiometer (a simplified version is Crookes_radiometer) W
Light, radiant energy intensity pyranometer W/m2
Mass and weight balance,
spring scale (aka spring balance)
weighing scale (including digital scale)
g, kg, N
Milk, richness lactometer ° (out of 100)
Optical density (darkness) densitometer  
Pressure, atmospheric barometer (How to Use a Barometer...)
barograph
Pa (= N/m2)
Resistance ohmmeter Ω
Rotation speed tachometer rpm
Sound sound level meter dB (or dBA)
Speed doppler radar (radar gun)
speedometer
tachymeter (not tachometer)
km/h
Temperature thermometer °C, K
Thermal conductivity, gas katharometer W/(m·K)
Time calendar (this doesn't actually measure time, just helps keep track of it)
sundial
hourglass, egg timer
clock
marine chronometer (see John Harrison, 1737, subject of the excellent book Longitude)
atomic clock
s
Volts (electrical potential) voltmeter mV, V
Weight see Mass above  
Wind speed anemometer m/s

Devices which can measure a variety of things include multimeters and oscilloscopes.

There are lots more measuring devices.

Without looking, can you guess what a heliometer measures? Remember your chemistry lessons?